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*Such buildings are indigenous and widespread within Indonesia, and are particularly susceptible to damage and destruction from earthquake events.*

- General Concepts Earthquake Resistant Design
- Earthquake engineering
- Cost difference of buildings in Kathmandu constructed with and without earthquake safer features
- Earthquake-Resistant Structures - Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation

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The Mumbai Metropolitan region and New Delhi-Gurgaon region has seen a spurt in the vertical growth of buildings. With the recent earthquake in Nepal, the discussion on how safe buildings and houses are in India has again gained prominence. The question on most minds is, how safe is my residential building or office building during an earthquake? During an earthquake, a wave propagates from the rock to the soil and then into the structure, creating a sway in the structure. The key to designing an earthquake-resistant structure is to build a ductile structure rather than a stiff structure.

## General Concepts Earthquake Resistant Design

Seismic loads should be considered in the cost estimation process as a consequence of changes in structural dimensions. Seismic loads received by buildings vary from one region to another, which are used as a basis for dimensioning structural components.

This paper aims to investigate the potential cost changes of the reinforced concrete RC beam and column elements as an implication of variations in seismic load received by a building constructed in different seismic areas.

This study was applied to a prototype of the two-story building. The structure analysis performed with dynamic analysis by varying seismic design categories based on eight seismic zones in the observed area.

The utilization of a building prototype was applied to three indices of seismic importance factor to represent the building occupancy category. The results of the study explaining the increase in the total cost of the two RC elements are 0. The variations of the costs due to the factor of seismic load and building occupancy categories indicate that both factors need to be considered in the cost estimation process of buildings. The earthquake risk consideration as one of the critical loads is required in the design process of a building to accommodate its potential occurrence.

When a building failed to withstand seismic loads, it causes damage in various levels, both minor and severe damages, or even collapse [ 1 — 3 ]. Indonesia, a country with various seismic potentials, especially in Aceh Province, has seen several high-intensity earthquakes occur in the last 15 years [ 4 — 6 ].

The magnitude of the potential seismic load that may be received by a building is determined by some interrelated factors. Seismicity around the construction site can determine earthquake disturbances; characteristics of soil movements, [ 7 ] such as amplitude, duration, and predominant period; and structural dynamic response characteristics, such as natural periods, attenuation factors, and ductility factors [ 8 , 9 ].

Building dimensions in some locations may be affected differently by seismic loads. The high-to-wide ratio of a building defines its flexibility. Understanding the seismic potential is essential during the structure design process of a building [ 10 ], especially in buildings that are constructed at locations with a high level of earthquake vulnerability [ 11 , 12 ].

Regarding the type of structure material, studies have been carried out related to reinforced concrete structures [ 13 , 14 ], steel structures [ 15 , 16 ], and composite materials [ 17 , 18 ]. For the aspect of structural components, some studies were conducted focusing on frame structures [ 19 — 23 ], beam and column structures [ 24 — 27 ], and other structural components, namely, slab [ 28 ] and wall [ 29 , 30 ].

Earthquake potential has also been assessed by examining aspects of risk to structural elements [ 31 ], regularity shapes of building [ 32 ], building utilization [ 33 , 34 ], potential seismic hazards [ 35 , 36 ], and cost of damages [ 37 — 39 ]. These considerations are vital to ensure appropriate design as well as cost efficiency against earthquake risks [ 40 ]. The structure is designed not only to meet the requirements of the building safety aspect but also mandatory to consider the economic aspects.

The costs required for the structural components of a building need to be estimated by considering the earthquake potential [ 41 — 43 ]. This consideration is intended so that the dimensions of the designed structure effectively withstand all loads and, at the same time, efficient on costs. The total cost of structural components for various potential seismic loads should be estimated by simulating the loads from some seismic design categories.

This paper analyzes the total cost of RC structure components affected by seismic loads by considering the seismic design categories and the utilization of building as indicated by seismic importance factors. The structural components were focused on analyzing the construction of reinforced concrete RC.

The prototype design will be simulated using software for the analysis and structural design system by applying seismic design categories and importance factors to the observed locations within Aceh Province, Indonesia.

The dimensions of structure components, and in particular the structure of reinforced concrete beams and columns, are analyzed based on the Indonesian National Standard which is abbreviated as SNI in Indonesian as follows: 1 SNI , the earthquake resistance planning procedures for the structure of buildings and nonbuildings [ 44 ] 2 SNI , the minimum loads for building and other structures design [ 45 ] 3 SNI , the concrete structural requirements for buildings [ 46 ].

The variation of seismic loads in the structure analysis process is determined according to the seismic design category SDC and the risk category for all forms of building occupation as referring to SNI [ 44 ]. SDC reflects the possibility of suffering from earthquake shocks of various intensities to determine the level of seismic resistance required for the new buildings.

SDCs take into consideration the type of soil at the site. The analysis considered the implementation of normal Site Class D soils, which are the most commonly found. Zoning classification is determined by seismic acceleration spectral on risk-targeted maximum consider earthquake MCE R for short periods S S and one second S 1. These values are measured in gravity and obtained from the web-based application provided by the Settlement Research and Development Centre of the Ministry of Public Works.

The application provides values of the spectral parameter based on geographic position coordinates latitude and longitude of cities observed, as shown in Table 1. Seismic load variations are also determined by the importance factors I e to represent risk categories for all forms of building occupations.

The risk category identifies substantial consequences to human life in case of damage or failure caused by exceeded seismic loads. The factors are distinguished by the index of 1. Structure analyses were performed based on dynamic analysis using the SAP International v. The outputs of the analysis provide the dimension data of the concrete area A C , the reinforcement area A R , and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio RL.

The structure analysis was conducted on RC beams and columns. Beams are classified as flexural elements that carry inner forces in the form of bending moments and shear forces that functions to channel the moment to the columns. The initial dimension of RC beam height h is determined based on the beam length L , and the width is planned proportionally to the height [ 46 ]. Changes in dimensions for subsequent zones and importance factor will be adjusted to changes in the seismic load received by the RC beam.

Changes and adjustments to the dimensions of the concrete cross section made for the condition of the reinforcement ratio RL have exceeded the maximum tolerable ratio of 0. Columns are the structural element functioning as the primary load-carrying element of the building and included as specific moment-resisting frame systems.

All RC columns were designed in a square shape. The ratio increased following the increase in the load received by RC columns, and when it has exceeded the tolerance range of 0. The RC components consist of concrete work measured in a cubic meter , reinforcement work measured in kilogram , and formwork measured in square meter.

A spreadsheet application was used to support the quantity take-off QTO analysis. The quantity of concrete work Q C was computed as the sum of all RC beams or columns based on the concrete section area A C and the length of RC beams or columns L , as shown in equation 1. The number and diameter of reinforcement bars should be designed as the total area closest required area A R. The quantity of reinforcement work Q R was determined by the rebars number and length L R and then converted into weight units meter to kilogram using the weight to length conversion index c , as shown in equation 2.

The quantity of formwork Q F is the total area of formwork used to cast a beam or column and determined by the casting perimeter length L P of concrete and the length of RC beams or columns L , as shown in equation 3 :. The unit price UP of work is the primary reference for calculating the price of an RC component of the building structure.

The UP of works used in this study refers to the results of previous studies [ 48 ]. The costs of works C W for all structural components were obtained from the multiplication between the quantity of work Q i and the unit price of work UP i as follows:. The overall form of change for the costs of RC components was analyzed cumulatively by adding up the total cost for RC beams and RC columns. The change patterns of the cost were explained in two aspects.

Firstly, the cost patterns were explained based on the composition of the RC cost of works. The cost compositions describe the percentage cost of work to the total cost of components, namely, RC beams and RC columns. Secondly, the cost changes were defined based on the relationship between the total cost TC of whole RC components and the potential seismic load in each zone.

The TC was determined as the total cost per square meter of the building area from the two RC components reviewed. A linear regression approach was used to describe the total cost TC as a function of spectral acceleration S S from the zones observed for each importance factor I e as follows:.

The results of the analysis and design dimensions of the component indicated that the concrete area A C was possibly applied in some subsequent zones or building occupancy categories.

In this condition, the reinforcement area A R increases following the increase in seismic loads. The reinforcement ratio RL will also increase in line with the reinforcement area A R.

It means that the dimension of concrete should be enlarged. An increase in seismic loads due to changes in spectral acceleration S S and S 1 and building occupancy, as defined by importance factors, directly affects the reinforcement area A R.

The concrete area of the RC columns for a building shows the same pattern in both types of columns, while the area of the column was unaffected on both floors of the building, as shown in Table S2 of Supplementary Material. A significant difference was seen in the reinforcement area for the first-floor column and second-floor column as a consequence of the loads received by the structure.

In general, the reinforcement area for first-floor columns can be twice as large as the second-floor column. The dimensions of the concrete column in one zone or building occupancy category for the succeeding zones or categories can still be used as long as the reinforcement ratio RL was still within the reference limit.

This condition was typical as in the changes in the dimensions of the RC beam. The quantity take-off QTO analysis was carried out for three cost components of the work, namely, concrete work, reinforcement work, and formwork.

The QTO was conducted based on the dimension outputs for concrete and reinforcement elements. Specifically for reinforcement, the output of the area should be converted in the arrangement of the number and diameter of the rebar to be installed in the RC components, as shown in Tables S3 and S4 of the Supplementary Material.

The quantity of formwork increases following the change in dimensions of concrete beams and columns. The increase in the quantity of reinforcement is in line with the result of previous studies [ 41 , 49 ]. The results of the RC costs were determined based on the quantity and unit price of works, as seen in Tables S5 and S6 of Supplementary Materials. The total cost of RC will change significantly with its quantity, as shown in Tables 2 and 3. The increasing costs of these two structural components show a slightly different form.

The consistency of the increase in costs is relatively more noticeable in RC beams rather than RC columns. These fluctuations are an indication of changes in the reinforcement ratio to meet the needs of each reinforcement following changes in seismic loads in all zones observed.

The cost of each RC component can be determined according to the composition of the cost of works. Changes in the composition of costs for concrete work, reinforcement work, and the cost of formwork for each RC component are expressed as a percentage. This percentage reflects the proportion of the cost of works to total costs for each structural component.

The cost composition of the two RC components is shown in Figures 3 and 4. The cost composition for reinforced concrete works is dominated by reinforcement costs, both for RC beams and columns, and then followed by formwork and concrete work. This condition also confirms the results of the other studies [ 42 , 43 ]. The total cost of the RC components is correlated to the potential seismic load in each zone that is represented by the spectral acceleration parameters, as denoted by S S.

The total cost of RC components was simplified based on the building area per square meter. The regression analysis was used to express the relationship between the two variables.

Changes in the total costs are shown in Figure 5. The increase in the total cost per square meter for buildings designed by using importance factor I e 1. A different condition was found in buildings designed by using a higher index of importance factors that presented greater slopes as an indication of higher costs increase.

For each seismic zone, the total cost of RC components shows an increase following the increase in the index of importance factors I e. The total cost increases These conditions indicate that changes in the occupancy category, as represented in the I e of building design, will have a significant impact on changes to the building costs.

## Earthquake engineering

Seismic loads should be considered in the cost estimation process as a consequence of changes in structural dimensions. Seismic loads received by buildings vary from one region to another, which are used as a basis for dimensioning structural components. This paper aims to investigate the potential cost changes of the reinforced concrete RC beam and column elements as an implication of variations in seismic load received by a building constructed in different seismic areas. This study was applied to a prototype of the two-story building. The structure analysis performed with dynamic analysis by varying seismic design categories based on eight seismic zones in the observed area.

PDF | Earthquake resistant design of structures a brief introduction and presentation | Find, read Engineered Construction: Ex Reinforced Concrete framed.

## Cost difference of buildings in Kathmandu constructed with and without earthquake safer features

Elevar la calidad del servicio que la revista presta a los autores. Asegurar la eficacia y la mejora continua del servicio. The development of new codes for earthquake-resistant structures has made possible to guarantee a better performance of buildings, when they are subjected to seismic actions. Therefore, it is convenient that current codes for design of building become conceptually transparent when defining the strength modification factors and assessing maximum lateral displacements, so that the design process can be clearly understood by structural engineers. The aim of this study is to analyze the transparency of earthquake-resistant design approach for buildings in Mexico by means of a critical review of the factors for strength modification and displacement amplification.

Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake or seismic engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. However, the tremendous costs experienced in recent earthquakes have led to an expansion of its scope to encompass disciplines from the wider field of civil engineering , mechanical engineering , nuclear engineering , and from the social sciences , especially sociology , political science , economics , and finance.

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### Earthquake-Resistant Structures - Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation

Experience in past earthquakes has demonstrated that many common buildings and typical methods of construction lack basic resistance to earthquake forces in most cases this resistance can be achieved by following simple inexpensive principles of good building construction practices. These principles fall into several broad categories:- i Planning and layout of the building involving considerations of the location of rooms and walls, openings such as doors and windows, the number of storeys etc. At this stage, site and foundation aspects should also be considered.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate increase in the cost of reinforced concrete buildings in Kathmandu valley constructed using earthquake safer features in comparison with that of buildings constructed using conventional approach without earthquake safety features. Five buildings constructed using earthquake safer features and five buildings constructed without using these features are selected. A cost comparison of both types of buildings is done, and the total cost is also compared for structural, nonstructural and service components in the buildings.

This study investigates the construction practices adopted for these common building typologies. Recommendations are made for the local.

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- Вы его убили. Вы же сказали… - Мы к нему пальцем не притронулись, - успокоил ее Стратмор. - Он умер от разрыва сердца.

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One of the activity is formulation of Indian Standards on different subjects of Engineering through various Division Councils.